An Introduction To Politics

Politics is the structured group of activities which are associated with the making of decisions in groups or other types of political power relationships between individuals, including the allocation of status or wealth. The major branch of social science which studies politics and government is known as public policy. It is also known as political science, social sciences, political science and diplomacy. Some prominent political scientists are voting, power, multiparty competition, international organization, national character, constitutional law, human rights and freedom, and political systems. The study of politics is extremely vast and politically charged due to the ever-changing coalitions and interest groups that exist within it.

Politics is basically a system of institutions designed to ensure the stability of societies by ensuring freedom, equality, justice and freedom for all. It also deals with the societal issues which deal with the economic, social and cultural aspects. Politics has become an essential part of life and the foundation stone of modern civilization. It is divided into various branches such as politics at the national level, national and regional politics, international relations and politics at the neighborhood, regional, national and local levels. Politics at the municipal, regional, national and even at the global level has also become a matter of discussion these days. National, regional and even local politics are influenced by the structure of states, cultures and ethnic boundaries.

Politics deals with the collective will of the people towards specific ends. The processes of politics involve selection of leaders, selection of legislative bodies, election of citizens, formulation of polices and change in political system. The study of political science also includes the major works on ancient institutions of politics, philosophy of politics, political psychology, philosophy of law, political rhetoric, history of revolutions, constitutional government, national leadership, constitutional monarchies, social science and political literature. There are numerous other branches which are also involved in the study of politics which include labour politics, gender politics, national identity politics, post-colonial and post-industrial politics, global politics, environmental politics and political economy.

Politics may be grouped under descriptive political science, analysis of politics, political decision making, influence and power, institutions and power, idealism and realism, freedom and privilege and nation building. The topics covered in political science curriculum are numerous and are used for teaching about politics at undergraduate and graduate level. There is a significant amount of literature on political science which influences the conceptualization and rationalization of political theories. There have been numerous criticisms on some aspects of modern politics by social scientists and scholars who claim that political systems may not necessarily be ideal and that many political institutions have failed to meet their objectives. However, most social scientists and scholars believe that it is very hard to prove that there is no ahistorical aspect to politics and they also point out that no perfect political system has ever been created.

Politics can be studied at different levels. At the undergraduate level, there are few courses on political science which cover the major issues like philosophy of politics, political institutions, political economy, public policy and political history. At the graduate level there are few more courses on this subject. Politics is one of those areas where all the subjects in science and mathematics converge, especially at the undergraduate level. Therefore, political science majors learn about statistics, economic theory, ecological economics, computer sciences and political science from a well-established institution.

Aristotle said that politics is a polity, a community based upon notions of honor, loyalty and power, and, therefore, has ethical content. He added that, in some sense, polities are derivative to constitutional systems, since the making laws involves selecting those who hold office, rather than being elected for it. The constitutional laws of a country are derived from its political parties. Since politics involves contestation of systems of government, Aristotle said that it is essentially political.

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